- Minoan - most ancient Greek civilization
- Roman (growing wine grapes in what is now England—at the peak of Empire)
- Hellenistic (Alexander the Great—Cleopatra in Egypt; Maccabees in Palestine)
- Middle Ages - 2nd half of the first millennium BCE (AD).
Sea walls and wetlands to protect coasts from erosion and coastal flooding are adapting to rather than really mitigating climate change but curbing pollution is worth doing for other reasons. Desalinating sea water and pumping it to where it's needed inland are also adapting to rather than mitigating climate change, but those efforts are worth doing regardless of the cause of drought. As is requiring renewable energy replacements for petroleum products, if the federal government buys patents and not only licenses mass-production to too- big-to-fail oil firms but also subsidizes equipment for mass production for too-big-to-fail oil firms. Those could be a better deal for oil firms than extracting and processing tar sands.
Let's say crude's pegged at $80/ barrel and the cost to mass produce diesel comes to $60/barrel with negative price CO2, $76 with $15.81/barrel CO2 from Global Thermostat. That leaves that too-big-to-fail oil firm with $4/barrel or $20/barrel profit on Joule Unlimited diesel, and at teh same time makes crude oil that costs up to $80/barrel workable.
We (the world as a whole) have until 2025 to get industrialized democracies (including the United States of A) down to net zero greenhouse gas emissions, and until 2035 to get the world as a whole down to net zero, according to IPCC. The closest to a technological solution is Global Thermostat, to capture CO2 from ambient air to feed photosynthetic microbes to recycle carbon as hydrocarbon fuels or to compress and use as fracking/hydraulic/heat-transfer fluid in enhanced geothermal systems. That will need to be part of any sort of solution. Another part is to replace coal and natural gas for electric power with some combination of national smart electric grid including storage, wind, solar, geothermal, and waste-to-energy with combined heat and power. (Waste includes wet organic wastes anaerobically digested to methane and forest wastes as wood pellets.)
Money answers everything. Which means that since our military leaders say they want renewable energy even more than weapons, some money can be diverted from military pork to make smart grid parts, plus wind and solar generators instead of pork, in those same factories. Our chicken-hawks want to fight terrorists in the Middle East. Let's hope that our MIC and military leaders between themselves can convince our hawking crew of chicken hawks in Congress that fighting global warming in the USA can be just as profitable for the MIC and improve national security at the same time, more than fighting terrorists. Tell 'em loud and tell 'em clear: just put that money also into fighting global warming, please!
Most money must come from taxing energy, regardless of carbon footprint. To avoid tanking the economy, a tax must be phased in as a 10% increase in the average price of energy each year. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics says the coefficient of demand for energy in general is -0.37. If so, at 70% tax rate, revenue is just slightly less than twice the prohibitive tariff effect, so let's split revenue 50/50 between buying whatever fossil fuel is displaced and renewable energy equipment to replace fossil fuel. Rent equipment to utility and split rent payments 56% to buy fossil fuel and 44% to reinvest in more renewable energy equipment. Buy the fossil fuel displaced by renewable energy over the same time span as would be consumed with business-as-usual for political feasibility. Since Congress hates you if you even whisper "Green" aloud, you need our military to talk convincingly to the fossil fuel industry to let the military know it will be in their best interest, in everyone's best interest, to demand this of Congress.
Between 75% and 80% of the remaining 20 trillion metric tons of carbon in fossil pool is in coal, and it's likely cost $25(2004 $)/metric ton to capture CO2 with Global Thermostat, according to Graciella Chilchinsky.
$30/metric ton of CO2 * 2200 (lbs in metric ton)/2000(lbs in short ton) * 44(molecular wt of CO2)/12(atomic wt of carbon) = $100/short ton carbon content of fossil fuel - this is the cost to buy it as mineral rights!
With coal worth about $66/ton 92% carbon coal, $100/short ton of carbon content for coal as mineral rights would be generous compared to the market price for coal to burn. Since 2014, price levels are 25% more than 2004 price levels. That suggests $33/metric ton of CO2 = $110/short ton of carbon would be more realistic for what it will cost to capture CO2 with Global Thermostat. Thus, it should cost 10% less to buy coal as mineral rights at $100/ton of carbon content from too-big-to-fail coal mine owners, than to capture CO2 from burning coal and then try to use it, either recycling in liquid hydrocarbon fuel or using it as fracking/hydraulic/heat-transfer fluid in enhanced geothermal systems instead of water.
Gas is fossil fuel burned for electric power other than coal. Not only do fracked gas wells leak badly, so do gas pipelines, livestock (farts and burps), flood irrigated crops like rice, manure from livestock, sewage treatment plants, sanitary landfills, and naturally occurring methane hydrate along our Atlantic and Gulf coasts near the mouths of rivers. The USDA should help farmers deal with agricultural methane emissions—preferably control and sell them to natural gas utilities. The Army Corps of Engineers should help local governments deal with methane from sewage treatment and municipal solid waste disposal—again, preferably control and sell to natural gas utilities.
Let's hope we can persuade natural gas extractors to take responsibility for leaking methane hydrate deposits along coasts even though it's not entirely their fault. Methane is very potent greenhouse gas, anywhere from 20 times as strong as CO2 over 100 years to 86 times as strong as CO2 over one year. We may need to tax methane leaks, in addition to a tax on energy, regardless of carbon footprint, to provide an incentive to stop leaks, and to raise funds to pay for measures to stop leaks.
Some well-off local governments in the USA should be able to pay for measures themselves, given some help with financing—some, like Detroit, will need to be provided these measures at federal expense, to pay higher prices for natural gas reserves as mineral rights than $100/short ton of carbon content, paid for by tax on energy, and to pay for monitoring by Earth Observation Weather Satellite.
If burning gallon of diesel emits 25 pounds of CO2 and extracting and processing tar sands to yield gallon of diesel emits 12.5 pounds of CO2, it works out that barrel of oil has carbon footprint of .7159 metric tons of CO2 that would cost $23.74 to capture with Global Thermostat, of which $15.81 is for emissions from burning barrel of diesel. At $100/barrel, pay almost $139.80/metric ton of CO2 emissions avoided = $466/short ton carbon kept out of diesel sold to burn = $311/ton carbon left in ground, and also avoid tearing up landscape and risking spilling dilbit. At $80/barrel, would be $249/ton carbon kept in ground. Gift to bankers in last-minute federal budget deal is loosening Frank-Barney’s anti-gambling with depositors’ money provision and requiring depositors of any bank that gets in trouble to bail-in bank—meaning bank confiscates part or all of their deposits—YUCK!. Too big to fail banks are gambling again—this time with oil futures derivatives. Please figure out what price oil needs to be to avoid those gambling bankers needing bail-in and tax crude oil to close gap between that price and world price, which should also help too big to fail oil firms if half of revenue is used to buy tar sands as mineral rights and half for R&D to achieve economy of scale both for Global Thermostat to capture CO2 to recycle carbon and for sustainable replacement for petroleum using CO2 captured by Global Thermostat. As I said before under coal, $110(2014 $)/ton of carbon content is likely cost of CO2 capture once Global Thermostat achieves economy of scale. Joule Unlimited seems current most likely candidate. They hope to get ethanol, gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel (aka kerosene) from their GE microbes for $1.20/gallon= $50.40/barrel. A late November 2014 article said they were working on pilot plant for ethanol and someone capturing CO2 from smokestack was paying them something to take CO2 off their hands. Short term that is cheaper. Long term, we need to keep recycling same carbon forever to get down to net zero emissions.